**Introduction to HOV**

The HO model was made in order to recognize the pattern of trade between many the countries. In this model it has given an overview that goods which are produced in abundant ant will be exported and goods which are produced in scare will be imported using cheap factor of production

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Vanek saw international trading of good in an indirect manner that is goods are trade with other countries without other country being aware about the imported factor services within the trading basket. For example when Chinese goods are imported, in result China laborers and capital equipment’s under the modification (i.e indirectly) of imports are entering the United States of America. It was be easy to say that indirect export services has been given to United States of America.

There were many economist who countered HOV that is Choi where he noted that production vector is difficult to forecast as when number of goods are more than factors of production used. Historical study has stated that number of goods outnumber number of factors.

Leamer (1984) gave a answer to the above problem by telling that a country will assign resources among industries to exploit the total value of outputs, within his model, randomly output prices(which are fixed) are determined in the world market. This model permits non negative output solitary in m sectors, and the residual n minus m sectors yield (0) zero output. After carefully watching this Choi countered that as well saying that this cannot be a real world solution because n which is number of industries always have positive output levels.

As a result, (HOV) Theorem, which forecasts the factor content of trade, becomes more applicable. Even though trade path is unknown, when factor price are equalized (FPE), the factor content of trade is exclusive.

Let A denote income share for a country, that would be as shown below.,

A = C/Cw,

As shown above C and C* is nothing but the incomes earned for the home and foreign country, separately. (Provided trade is not balanced then C and C* must mean expenditures to forecast actual trade.)Cw is the income earned by the whole world.

Provided factor price equalization, the home country has abundance in labor if

L/Lw > A

Country’s export services will be (0)zero if the labor endowment would be Lo = A Lw, but positive if L > Lo. Therefore within H-O-V model, the forecasted amount of labor exported in a disguise was that would be indirectly is

ELt = L –A Lw,

In the above equation E is the expectation operator. Likewise, the forecasted amount of capital services would be as shown below.

EKt = K –A Kw

**Two paper for HOV one which goes against HOV therom and the other which supports HOV**

**Against HOV**

Seeing the above there was trifler who criticized HOV in his paper called The Case of the Missing Trade and other Mysteries

According to his paper he said that HOV model includes of 4 theorems. The Heckscher ohlin theorem, factor price equalization (FPE) theorem, the Stopler Samuelson theorem and Rybczynski theorem. Initial two theorems are most applicable to explain the missing trade by Trefler written in 1995 releases the model in the blow equation:

F_ _fc= (V_ _fc–s_ c V_ _fw ) where f=1,F@c=1 and C) (1)

In above F_ _fc means factor content of net exports That is the quantity of factor f embodied for a country’s exports. V__fc represents the endowment of factor f in country c. s_ _c is country c’s has consumption in the share of world factor endowments V__fw. The above equation one above states that if country c is abundant in factor f(V__ fc/V_ _fw >s__ c), it will export such goods where the production is exhaustive in factor f, and thus competently exporting the services of factor f(F_ fc>0). This deduction is from the HO theorem, which is based on the assumption that countries have identical preferences. Then, the deduction also has an inference of FPE theorem, reinforced by Davis. FPE basically says that free trade allows relative good prices to converge and eventually leads to real factor price convergence. Consequently, as Feenstra in 2004 stated, FPE indirect that trading in goods will be perfect substitute for trade in factor’ and disagrees factor intensity reversals. Trefler in 1995 measured the Chinese case, a country that is ample in labor, and exports labor intensive product in cloth. Which means China trades labor abroad, as personified in its labor-intensive export.

Trefler in 1995 concepts an equation introducing an error term which is stochastic in nature to equation one in order to observe deviances from the HOV theorem:

F __fc = (V__ fc–s__ c V__ fw )+_fc (2)

The HOV theorem can be tested in several ways. One method involves investigative the portion of the Variances of F__ fc against (V__ fc–s__ c V__ fw). A seamless fit of the H-O-V theorem would mean that this ration is equal or close to 1. The Trefler in 1995’s result for this was 0.032 and in absolute values, therefore factor service trade is much smaller than its factor-endowments prediction, showing ‘Missing Trade’, as Trefler in 1995 calls. This is mystifying as the experiential factor trade content is much smaller than what is predicted by the relative endowments of the countries. Another method would be to manner a ‘sign for HOV’ test, a relaxed version of the HOV theorem first introduced by Bowen et al. checking for the percentage of observations in which F__fc and (V_ _fc–s__ c V_ _fw) have the same sign.

**Support for HOV theorem**

**An Explanation of OECD Factor Trade with Knowledge Capital and the HOV Model by Shuichiro Nishioka in University of Colorado at Boulder (October 2006)**

He cited that In spite of its theoretical importance, much preceding experiential research was unsuccessful to support the HOV model. The compromise is that similarity in both factor abundance and technologies cause the observed failures of the HOV model. However, as has been argued theoretically and conceptually, knowledge capital is a potentially important determinant of comparative advantage. This study offers the first observed evidence in the HOV framework that knowledge capital plays a crucial role in explaining trade among OECD countries. It has done that by using the dataset of 15 OECD countries, It has shown strong support for the HOV model Augmented by factor productivity differences. It resulted in different from previous contributions to the HOV literature because the majority of those studies required major modifications in Theoretical assumptions. Even though results vary slightly across knowledge-capital Specifications, I obtain correct sign fits for 14 of 15 countries using business knowledge and technology-based spillovers. Both the sign fits and variance ratios indicate the strong performance of the HOV model with knowledge capital. Interestingly, knowledge-intensity is strongly correlated with the cross-country variations in factor-productivities. This correlation serves as evidence that knowledge capital improves the performance of HOV for physical capital and aggregate labor in an indirect way. Finally, that papers findings revive the HOV model as a useful twenty two explanation for OECD trade, as conceptualized by Dollar (1993) and Davis (1997), by shedding light on the unexplored factor input of knowledge capital.