In the first question, I will discuss these factors in the formation of Malaysia in 1963. Malaysia should be established because of political developments in Singapore and Sarawak. In addition, the establishment of Pakistan to expedite the process of independence for the states of Borneo and Singapore. In addition, the formation of Malaysia to also maintain a balance of people and creating economic cooperation.
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In addition, I will discuss the reactions and the opposition encountered before the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963. Various reactions have been there as a suggestion that was made by Tunku Abdul Rahman for the establishment of Pakistan. Community acceptance of this issue are not similar. Most political parties, leaders of the Malaysian society but there are still against it. Reactions of Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak and Brunei is not the same.
In the second question, I will deal with the objectives of the New Economic Policy (NEP) implemented by the government. The main objective of the NEP was to eradicate poverty irrespective of race, especially the rural population and restructure society irrespective of occupation.
In addition, I also will discuss measures taken by the government to implement strategies to eradicate poverty and restructure society. Much effort has been launched by the government, such as creating employment opportunities for all groups of people who are unemployed, increase the productivity and income.
We must know the history of our country like the things about the formation of Malaysia and the obstacles faced by our country. Apart from history, we should know the policies adopted by our country.
The formation of Malaysia in 1963 was due to the political scene in Singapore. The main reason for opposing the establishment of Pakistan is a growing communist activities in Singapore in the 1950s. Communist agents were absorbed into Chinese schools and unions. In 1954, the Communists organized a strike at a bus company. Strike spreads to riot. In addition, the communist leader also took the People’s Action Party (LIGHTNING) that since 1959 under the control of the Government of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew. They became a member of the LIGHTNING to establish a left-wing groups in THUNDERSTORMS. At first, Lee Kuan Yew befriend them, but eventually conflict has occurred. These disputes resulted in the defeat LIGHTNING election in 1961 that Hong Lim Elections and Electoral Anson. LIGHTNING shows the influence of the communist defeat stronger. As a result, Lee Kuan Yew, drove the left wing from THUNDERSTORMS. Communist influence has grown to one-party communist wing of the Socialist Front under the leadership of Lim Chin Siong was established. Tunku Abdul Rahman pervasive fear that the communists in Malaya. Hopefully, through the idea of Malaysia, Singapore, the desire of communist control of the subsequent failure to block their advance.
In addition, the formation of Malaysia due to the political development of Sarawak. In 1951, the Democratic Youth League Overseas Chinese communist wing formed but disbanded during the Emergency. However, a communist organization that is difficult to Sarawak Maju Youth Association has been moving among the trade unions, students and farmers. They incite the Chinese people against the British. Sarawak United People’s Party (SUPP) has been influenced by the communists. Then, the British government launched the operation to curb the influence of communist banana in the SUPP but failed. It is hoped that through this idea, that political stability can be obtained against the communist threat.
In addition, Malaysia is formed to compensate people. Admissions to the Borneo states of Malaysia are believed to balance the racial composition. Tunku Abdul Rahman is aware that the inclusion of Singapore will create imbalances in terms of racial breakdown in the Philippines. This is because over 75% of the population of Singapore is Chinese. While the racial composition of the Malay Archipelago involved only 49% of the Malays and the rest involving the Chinese and Indians. This situation is perceived to be adversely affecting the position of Malay in the long term. These concerns have been voiced by Tunku Abdul Rahman that if the number of Chinese than the Malays, it is probable that the special position of Malays and their rights will be challenged by the Chinese. In this situation, Tunku considers it necessary to include Sabah and Sarawak and Brunei in the establishment of Malaysia as 70% of the occupation are natives. In this way only the balance of the Malay race can be realized.
The formation of Malaysia as to develop economic cooperation. Malaysia allows the formation of the five areas to enjoy economic development together. Singapore, Brunei and Malaya had achieved economic progress is very satisfactory, while the states of Sabah and Sarawak were still retreating. Enable the establishment of the Federation of Malaysia Sabah and Sarawak to be developed. This means that the wealth of the developed area will be moved to the area retreated to finance development projects. Formation of Malaysia has accelerated the process of independence. The establishment aims to accelerate the idea of independence for Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Singapore. British promise to grant independence earlier in the event of Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Singapore joined Malaya to form Malaysia. The merger would also end the British occupation in the region and guarantee the sovereignty and security of those territories from the threat of outside forces.
Formation of Pakistan has become a hot issue that is often dealt with at that time. The various reactions to exist following the recommendations made by Tunku Abdul Rahman for the establishment of Pakistan. In fact, penerimana community on the issue in not the same. Most political parties, leaders of the Malaysian society but there are still against it.
In Singapore, the leader of People’s Action Party of Lee Kuan Yew has accepted these recommendations with an open heart. He supports this effort because the number of reasons, which he and the LIGHTNING to proceed without interruption of power in Singapore. In addition, Singapore can be more quickly gained independence from United Kingdom. In addition, the development of communist activities in Singapore and Singapore opportunity dapt dibendungkan economic progress more quickly. However, the establishment of Malaysia as well as opposition in Singapore, especially from the radical political parties like the Socialist Party and the Labour Party. The opposition was almost debilitating merger of Singapore and Malaysia. However, some efforts were made to obtain public support for the establishment of Pakistan. On 1 September 1962, Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew has entered into a nationwide campaign to hold a referendum to obtain the consent of the people of Singapore on its investment in Malaysia. In these campaigns, Lee Kuan Yew try to convince people about the benefits and the benefits that will be enjoyed by people with entering the country. Among the benefits is that Singapore will enjoy a free-port status. In addition, Singapore has the power of autonomy in the areas of finance, education and labor systems are separate. In addition, Singapore will have 15 seats in Parliament. The poll results show that a total of 71.1% of Singaporeans have expressed their views to support the establishment of the Malaysian and Singaporean investment into it.
In Sabah and Sarawak, the two leaders in this country was shocked by the establishment of Pakistan. The leaders of the two states formed the United Front on July 9, 1961 to oppose the idea of Pakistan. The leaders, including Ong Kee Hui (Chairman SUPP), Temenggong Jugah its Berieng (President of the Sarawak National Party – HOT), Dato ‘Mustapha bin Dato’ Harun and Stephen Donald (unofficial member of the Sabah Legislative Council). They opposed the idea for fear of Sabah and Sarawak will be controlled by the Malay. They are afraid of their political positions affected. They also fear that their personality states will be lost. Chinese traders are worried the economy will be seized by the power of Malaya and Singapore. In addition, they also think of Sabah and Sarawak should be given independence before joining Malaysia. Indigenous non-Muslims also oppose the idea of Pakistan. Objections voiced by the Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Association of the United National Kadazan (UNKO) and so forth. Leaders in the two states kesua consider the idea of Pakistan was a ploy to extend the power of the Malay and replace the British. In June 1961, Tunku Abdul Rahman went to Sabah and Sarawak, and found the people there have been misunderstandings about the idea of Pakistan. Thus, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Association Conference held in Singapore in July 1961. Some people of the United Front had been sent by the British to the conference. They discussed the idea of Pakistan. Finally, the Malaysia Solidarity Consultative Committee (JPPM) was established to collect the opinions of Sabah and Sarawak on the idea. In August 1961, Abang Haji Mustapha (Chairman HEAT) supports the idea of Pakistan. Then, Stephen Donald and Dato ‘Mustapha also supports this idea following a visit to Malaya, and in consultation with Tunku Abdul Rahman.
In Brunei, Sultan Omar Ali Saifudin support this idea but the Parti Rakyat Brunei (PRB), led by AM Azahari opposed. A.M. Azahari opposed this idea because Brunei is a province of Pakistan. He wanted the independence of Brunei before joining Malaysia. He also plans to incorporate Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak into the Federation of North Borneo under the leadership of the Sultan of Brunei. PRB win in District Council elections and the Legislative Council held in August and September 1962. The victory was assured that the people of Brunei Azahari also opposed the idea of Pakistan. In addition, Azahari was also felt himself strong support for the Philippines and Indonesia. With confidence that this idea will fail, PRB launched an armed rebellion in the December 7, 1962. Rebellion suppressed by the Government of Brunei with the help of soldiers from the British and Malay. Azahari fled to the Philippines, and declared himself as the Prime Minister and Sultan Omar Ali Saifudin as Chairman of the Federal Government of North Borneo. Although at first the Sultan of Brunei to support this idea, but he withdrew in July 1963 because he did not want to pay the tax revenue from oil production to the central government of Malaysia in the past 10 years. In addition, he also was dissatisfied with the lowest ranked in the list of the Sultans. Moreover, the people of Brunei are also not agree to join Malaysia.
NEP is a type of plan launched by the government in 1970 through the Second Malaysia Plan. The main goal was national unity but it also aims to restructure the socio-economic imbalance that exists in this country. Recognizing that a balanced distribution of economic importance in creating a united nation, as well as taking into account the poverty and the inability of some people to compete with other people then the NEP was designed to improve the situation. New Economic Policy (NEP) implemented with two main objectives of eradicating poverty irrespective of race and restructuring society.
Poverty is the main reason that caused dissatisfaction among the people. It is not only found in rural areas but also in the city. This situation could jeopardize national unity as the problem of poverty is by race with the highest poverty rate among the Malays, who focused on traditional agricultural activities. Efforts were underway to solve the problems of economic and social development projects have been designed to create jobs for all those people who are unemployed, increase the productivity and income, migration opportunities of those working in low productivity sectors to more lucrative sectors, reducing the gap income disparities between the races between the urban and rural areas and between regions, the modernization of rural life, creating a bumiputera commercial and industrial group, held a working environment that reflects the racial composition in Malaysia, and improve the standard and quality of life through education, training, health, facilities and other infrastructure.
Restructuring of society into the government’s intention that by 1990 the ownership of shares or the economy will reflect the composition of the interests of this country, where the participation of Bumiputera 30%, 40% non-Bumiputera and 30% consisted of foreign investors. In achieving the restructuring of the New Economic Policy, the following strategies have been designed to raise productivity and living standards of the poor through the process of modernizing rural areas, reducing the imbalance in the structure of employment that there is now a progressive manner through economic growth All that in 1990 the position of the labor force reflects the number of people, added more quickly in the Malaysian capital ownership in stock companies and economic growth, to create a society of trade and industry among the Malays and indigenous people so as to form and has a 30% economy in 1990 and established a number of agencies like MARA, Development Bank, Bank Bumiputera, Amanah Saham Nasional, and developing states and regions that are considered backward by the development of new areas such as Virgin, KESEDAR, KEJORA and so forth.
New Economic Policy implemented through a two-pronged strategy, namely the eradication of poverty without mangira race and restructuring society. Describe the steps taken by the government to implement the two strategies.
In achieving the restructuring of the New Economic Policy, the following strategies have been designed to raise productivity and living standards of the poor through the process of modernizing rural areas, reducing the imbalance in the structure of employment that there is now a progressive manner through economic growth All that in 1990 the position of the labor force reflects the number of people, added more quickly in the Malaysian capital ownership in stock companies and economic growth, to create a society of trade and industry among the Malays and indigenous people so as to form and has a 30% economy in 1990 and established a number of agencies like MARA, Development Bank, Bank Bumiputera, Amanah Saham Nasional, and developing states and regions that are considered backward by the development of new areas such as Virgin, KESEDAR, KEJORA and so forth.
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New Economic Policy Programme has been to diversify crops and provide land to landless farmers. In addition, the New Economic Policy soil exploration opportunities in the less developed states like Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang and parts of Johor. In addition, the NEP has memggalakkan incentives and infrastructure improvements to open more industrial estates, for example, in 1980, there were 76 industrial estates throughout the country.
Accordingly, the implementation of the New Economic Policy, among others, to develop the Rural Areas such as Virgin, KEJORA, JENGKA and KESEDAR. In an effort to eradicate poverty and restructuring society, of RM2861.7 million allocated under the RMK2 and RM8894.4 million allocated under the RMK3 to provide infrastructure, education, healthcare, industrial and rural development. In addition, agencies have been established such as PNB, MARA, and Pernas to increase Bumiputera equity in the economy. In addition, the government also provided assistance by the Bank loan (1966) and Credit Guarantee Corporation (1970) with a guarantee of 60%.
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Upon completion of these tasks, I fully understand Malaysia, formed in 1963, the reason. I know how important it is to set up Malaysia. In addition, I also know that before the reaction and opposition of Malaysia September 16, 1963 the formation of the difficulties. Tunku Abdul Rahman made a proposal to establish a response has been received in Pakistan is not the same. Of: for and against the existence of. However, as Malaysia’s Tunku Abdul Rahman important people to fight any resistance, for the establishment of Pakistan.
Through this mandate, I also know that the New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1970 and 1990 the Government launched the target. New economic policy is the eradication of poverty, especially in rural areas people. Therefore, the standard of living improved. In addition, the Government has taken various efforts to implement new economic policy objectives.
In this task is completed, I can understand how hard it is to play a lot of resistance to establish the number of Malaysian Malaysia Malaysia. In addition, I can understand the New Economic Policy (NEP) is to bring many benefits to the Malaysian people, especially people in rural areas. This policy increases job opportunities and other business of living.
Konklusinya, I can learn a lot of knowledge and understanding of the task. I know that is important that we understand the history of our country, our national policies and laws. Thank you