In England, every four adults in the United Kingdom have one smoker. There are more than 80,000 people die per year and each year has 10 million people suffering from smoking-related diseases (Li,2007) Since these reasons, the UK’s government has taken many measures to reduce cigarette consumption from different aspects. These measures have gained many effects.
1.2Theories and definitions
The increase in tax would reduce consumption, the tobacco industry said that. (Li, 1999)There are some goods may be overprovided by the market mechanism, these goods are called demerit goods. The economist also can firm that the consumption of these goods would produce large negative externalities. If demand of a good is price inelastic, then if the price changes a lot, the demand would just change a little. (Anderton, 2008:60)
Firstly, it will concern about the present situation of the cigarette assumption (if it has the rising problem).Secondly, this report will aim at analyzing three main ways has the government used to reduce the consumption of the cigarette. Thirdly, it will show how effective these measures are. Fourthly, it will recommend some measures to solve the problem of over consumed of cigarette.
2.2.1Promote the harm of smoking
The United Kingdom plans to implement the measure of printing the sick organs’ pictures on the cigarette cases in the second half of 2008. This plan was announced by the British government on July29th, 2007. Every year the British Government invests some funds for promoting the harms of smoking in public places. Those specific measures including provide free consulting and education services.
2.2.1 Smoke-free policy
Scotland has implemented a smoking ban in the year 2006 and Wales and Northern Ireland are also implemented in 2007. Since the British House of Commons has passed a bill which about prohibiting smoking in public places from July 1st 2007, all the public places in England should become no-smoking places. There will be punishment on people who don’t abbey the rules, such as do not put up “No Smoking” signs in place will be fined from 200 pounds to 1000 pounds.
2.2.2 Regulated the legal age
The law which published on January 1st 2007 has regulated the legal age to purchase cigarettes is 18 years old. Since the law The plan has been formal executing in October. From then, citizens’ under18 years old will not have the rights of purchasing the cigarettes.
This table shows government has effectively reducing the consumption of the cigarette. In 2007, the numbers of smokers almost reduced a half compared with the number of 1990. The government has used taxes to control the consumption of the cigarette. It also attack tax evasion and smuggling and fake or low quality goods in tobacco industry and urging sellers use the tax marks when packaging the cigarette.
2.4 Other measures
The British Government also took many other measures to promoting the harms of smoking in public. Such as offering free smoking cessation drugs for people who intend to quit smoking; research and development in cooperation with the firm to quit drugs; provide free nicotine replacement products for people who greatly addicted to smoking especially for the pregnant women and discuss with experts about tobacco management measures. It also used the technology tools: the invention of electronic cigarette, in order to make a substitute for the tobacco. (http://www.39kf.coml)
There are some goods may be overprovided by the market mechanism, these goods are called demerit goods. The economist also can firm that the consumption of these goods would produce large negative externalities. (Anderton, 2008:107) Cigarette is one kind of demerit good which can make people be addicted to it. Once people addicted to it, it’s difficult to quit it. Therefore the consumption of cigarette produces large negative externalities.
The European Commission selected 15 photographs will be printed on the cigarette box, these photographs including the smoker’s lungs, a cardiac surgery of the opened chest and a smoker’s neck tumors.
The measure that printing the sick organs’ pictures on the cigarette cases has its purpose of making people realizes the serious consequence of smoking and pressing them to quit it.
3.2.1 Smoke-free policy
The smoke-free policy prohibit smoking in public places can benefit the non-smokers, therefore, it got great support. Since the smoke-free policy published, the smoking action in the United Kingdom has become firmly rooted. According to the searches, there are nine out of non-smokers support the no-smoking law; approximately 99% of business owners said they had prepared for the implementation of the ban and about 40% of smokers intend to quit smoking as soon as possible
3.2.2 Regulated the legal age
Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to cigarette prices, according to some data, when cigarette prices increased by 10%, they reduce the amount of cigarette consumption is greater than 10% as a respond. (Li,2007) Adolescence is more vulnerable to cigarette prices than adults; therefore, if the government wants to reduce the assumption of the cigarette, it can be good to start with the adolescence.
Since the adolescence are the future of our society, the controlling of the young smokers is easier and the controlling of the assumption of the adolescence can basically reduce the smoking of the whole country, the government has regulated the legal age to purchase cigarettes is 18 years old. The amount of the cigarette smoked by teenager under 16 years old has decreased from 600 million down to 515 million from October in the year 2007.
The increase in tax would reduce consumption, the tobacco industry said that. (Li, 1999) According to this principle, the government can reduce cigarette consumption by increase the tobacco tax.
The United Kingdom prints tax marks on cigarette packages in order to making the price of cigarettes will not be unreasonably high. In this way can reduce public smoking and prevent children from becoming addicted to smoking.
The government has taken many measures to control the assumption of the cigarette. Such as reduce the number of the adolescent’s assumption, increase the taxes of the cigarette, propagate dangerous of the smoking to the mass. There are not enough substitutes of the cigarette. If we can do some research in the science to find the substitutes of the cigarette, we can get rid of the cigarette-related diseases.
- Environmental Health Association of the British report (2009) The theory of reduce the consumption of the cigarette [Online] http://www.food-safety.cn/News/Show.asp?id=20094 [accessed at 24th December 2009]
- Anderton, A. (2008). Economic (5th Edition). Harlow: Pearson Education British brewing quit “new tactics” appalling picture will be on cigarette pack (2007)[Online] http://www.39kf.com/focus/zt/04/2007-09-01-405527.shtml[Accessed 27th December 2009]
- Britain to consider legislation to ban display and sale of cigarettes(2008)[Online] http://www.bbc.co.uk/china/lifeintheuk/story/2008/03/printable/080324_cigarette_display.shtml[accessed at 26th December 2009]
- Crown (2009) Consultation on the future of tobacco control: consultation report: December 2008 [accessed at23th December 2009]
- Li, S. (1999) The theory of the reducing of the assumption of the cigarette [Online] http://www.cfeph.cn/cfeph/bookstore.nsf/747ce56ccc05e487482567b700272f05/413b88ecbf6df5c048256f9a000069cd?OpenDocument&ExpandSection;=9,7,8,6,11[accessed at 26th December 2009]
- Li. (2007).Britain promulgated the new rules aim at young people [Online] http://www.39.net/focus/jkshxw/218760.html[accessed at23th December 2009]
- Tma (2008) UK Cigarette Consumption [Online] the-tma.org.uk Available at: http://www.the-tma.org.uk/uk-cigarette-consumption.aspx [Accessed 27th December 2009]