- Dissertation Examples Archives Archive - Free Economics Essays Dissertation Examples Archives

The Eurozone Crisis and EU Fiscal Governance Reform

 Framing the Eurozone Crisis: A Case of Limited Ambition Abstract The eurozone crisis provided a new opportunity for obtaining supranational fiscal integration within the European single currency area. This study applies a framing analysis to the crisis discourse that emerged from within the European Union’s (EU) intergovernmental forums involved in fiscal policy coordination. As well … Read More»

Impact of NAFTA on Trade

The Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): An Institutional Analysis of Global and Regional Trade Abstract The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a trade-related framework to ensure the flow of trade and investments between countries. NAFTA is the world’s largest trade agreement involving the United States (U.S.), Canada, and Mexico which promotes … Read More»

Economic Relations of India and China with ASEAN Countries

A Comparative Analysis ABSTRACT India and China are two powers which relations are very difficult to determine: it is both cooperation and completion, conflict and collaboration. However, both China and India can been seen as countries that complement each other`s role in the relationships with ASEAN countries. On the other hand, the strategic differences between them … Read More»

Impact of Gender Inequality on Economic Growth: High HDI Countries

Investigating the effect of gender inequality on economic growth in countries with high human development index Abstract: Undoubtedly, to support and strengthen role of women in society improves health, higher levels of literacy and education, voluntary control of population growth and generally economic growth and equitable distribution of benefits. To achieve such an important goal, … Read More»

Energy Development in Russia and China

ABSTRACT This paper identifies the characteristics of energy development in Russia and China (with the focus on oil sector), investigates the ways of cooperation and related to it problems and how they influence the countries’ economic growth. In this research, we study the wide range of problems related to the practical implementation of strategic cooperation … Read More»

Economic Effects of Brexit

Brexit: The Beginning of the End or the End of the Beginning? ABBREVIATIONS CAP: Common Agricultural Policy                                    GATS: General Agreement Trade in Services CEE: Central and Eastern European                                 GATT: General Agreement Tariffs and Trade CJEU: European Court of Justice                                     IMF: International Monetary Fund EC: European Community                                                MFN: Most Favoured Nation ECB: European Central Bank                                           NT: … Read More»

Great Recession: Social Impact on Spain and the US

Introduction The Great Recession brought an economic downfall to many countries around the world. Each country experienced the damaging effects of the worldwide recession in their own way depending on the level of development their country was in at the start of the recession. According to Stiglitz (as citied in García, 2010) the global economic crisis … Read More»

Effect of State Intervention on Economic Growth of East Asian Nations

The East Asian Miracle: To what extent was state intervention responsible for the economic growth of the Asian Tigers? Abstract According to a 1993 World Bank report named ‘The East Asian Miracle’, the tremendous economic growth experienced by the Asian Tigers (South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong) was due to the neoliberal fiscal policies implemented by their … Read More»

Contribution of Women to the Economy in the Middle Ages

Introduction This dissertation will focus on the contribution of women to the economy in the Middle Ages. It will explore how and to what extent women contributed to the economy of Medieval England, asking the question of ‘Is the role of women in the medieval economy undervalued by history?’. As part of this it will … Read More»

Impact of the Financial Crisis on Banks and Banking

A bank is a financial intermediary that offers loans and deposits, and payment services. Its core activity is to provide loans to borrowers and to collect deposits from savers. Banks stock money, people need money; therefore, people need banks. Banks provide a home for people’s money, which is something accountants do not do; and banks … Read More»

Analysis of Economics and Finances of Multan District

Abstract Public finance deals with the financial management of public entities. This paper provides an overview of the financial affairs of local government of district Multan and identifies issues faced by the systems to deliver efficiently and effectively. It also highlights areas or improvement and opportunities to fund these activities. The district government heavily relies … Read More»

Determinants of the Aggregate Inward FDI Flow to Pakistan

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Overview Globalization which gave birth to the concept of interdependence of countries and their economies has been defined as the process through which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated with the assistance of global network of trade, communication and transportation. This allowed the investors to invest or transfer their capital … Read More»

Impact of Exchange Rate Misalignment on Capital Inflows

EXCHANGE RATE MISALIGNMENT AND CAPITAL INFLOWS: AN ENDOGENOUS THRESHOLD ANALYSIS FOR MALAYSIA ABSTRACT This study presents an attempt to investigate the impact of exchange rate misalignment on capital inflows in Malaysia. Specifically, a precise threshold value is estimated to examine when exchange rate misalignment suppresses capital inflows. To pursue these objectives, this study relies on … Read More»

Analysis of Risk Management in Banking Activity

The Case of Mauritian Banks Financial deregulation, globalization and liberalization have heightened considerable banking risks. Moreover, banks necessitate effective risk management strategies to promote banking welfare, protect outside agencies transacting with banks and to ensure stable banking operations. Risk managers need to focus on the diversity of risks and secure the interests of the overall … Read More»

Risks and Returns of Initial Public Offerings (IPOs)

ASSESSMENT OF RISKS AND RETURNS OF INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERINGS (IPOs) ISSUED IN HONG KONG VERSUS CHINA CHAPTER 1 ABSTRACT This dissertation was designed to focus on an assessment of the risks and returns of the initial public offerings (IPOs) issued in Hong Kong versus China. In recent years, China’s stock market has experienced phenomenal growth … Read More»

Comparison of Beer Industry in Italy and Canada

Introduction Beer is one of the most used beverages in the world next to coffee and tea. The beer industry therefore as we can imagine is one of the biggest industries in the world with many competitors inside of the industry. It is not surprising that many different kinds of beer and a variety of … canada/"> Read More»

Significance of Capital Market for Economic Development

An Explotary Study On The Significance of Capital Market for Economic Development and It’s Further Growth Potential In Context of Bangladesh Abstract This research paper investigates whether the role of capital market is significant for the economic development of Bangladesh. Literature suggests that well developed stock market can provide an extra impetus to economic activity. … Read More»

Development of the Caspian Oil and Gas Sector

Caspian Oil Gas Role of FDI in Economic Development of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan Abstract This paper underlines the foreign direct investment strategy formulation process in the three energy-rich countries of the Caspian Region: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The study comparatively analysis the investment climate in three selected countries and more specifically it examines the … Read More»

Impacts of Child Labour in Developing Countries

What are the causes and consequences of child labour amongst developing countries The child labour as a social and economic phenomenon has many aspects the most important of which seems to be the low level of financial growth that characterizes several countries which are commonly known as ‘developing.’ This paper illustrates the conditions that created … Read More»

Indian Banking Industry Competitiveness and Market Structure

Introduction After 1991 crisis, India’s liberalisation journey was multi-faceted. One of the major areas of liberalization was the banking sector which was highly regulated and controlled by government. Most importantly for banking industry, as per the M. Narasimhan committee recommendations, the liberalization came in the right areas namely interest rate, reduction of reserve requirements, entry … Read More»

Causes of the Development of Pakistan’s Banking Sector

ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to examine the determinants of development of banking sector from the perspective of Real GDP, Discount rate, Trade openness and Financial Liberalization by using annual data from 1970 to 2007. In this study, Liquid Liabilities, Private sector credit and Domestic credit are used as indicator of banking sector … Read More»

Analysis of the E-brokerage Industry

Executive Summary The financial brokerage industry has undergone dramatic changes worldwide in the last decade, due to the rise of the Internet. E-brokerage brought huge opportunity to the industry as it introduces enormous amount of on-line traders but at the same time posted serious threat as it open up the market to new competitors. In … Read More»

E-Commerce and Economic Development in Angola

ABSTRACT In this report as the title tells, I approach the economic development of Angola in terms of one of its major developer, the internet and ecommerce. I have done this because it is often impossible to glean important facts and insights about such countries which a society pronounces poor or third world. In the … Read More»

Effect of Family Disruption on Family Finances and Children

Critically discuss the evidence underlying the claim that the deterioration of economic conditions that usually results from family disruption is the major explanation for the lower ability and achievement of children in disrupted families. This paper considers whether, and to what extent, the deteriorated economic situations caused through family disruptions and economic deprivations are the … Read More»

Analysis of OECD Principles of Corporate Governance

Foreword The OECD Principles of Corporate Governance were endorsed by OECD Ministers in 1999 and have since become an international benchmark for policy makers, investors, corporations and other stakeholders worldwide. They have advanced the corporate governance agenda and provided specific guidance for legislative and regulatory initiatives in both OECD and non OECD countries. The Financial … Read More»

Economic Globalisation and Competition

consumers a level of quality in terms of the value and price of products and services. Economic globalization has increased volatile growth within international trade and as a result in subject of competition law. Article 81(1) of the EC Treaty ‘prohibits agreements between undertakings; decisions by associations of undertakings and concerted practices which may affect … Read More»

Outsourcing Voice-based Processes in Bangalore

Economists study the ways people earn a living and provide for their material needs. They study how people behave as a result of a change in price, income, or other variables. Many are employed in business and industry but there are many different areas of economics that economists specialize in. Industrial economists study many different … Read More»

Influences of Immigration to the UK, and the Impact

1.1 Overview The dissertation aims to thoroughly investigate the main influencing factors that do inspire skilled manpower from Bangladesh to immigrate to other countries especially to first world countries. Simultaneously, the dissertation also purposes to identify, analyse and establish the significance of the ultimate impact of such migration on the country, notably on its business … Read More»

Challenges and Opportunities for India

Background There have been profound scientific, strategic, technological, economic, political and diplomatic changes in the twentieth century and the early part of the twenty-first century which have altered the strategic orientation of nations the world over. There has been a sea change in the way nations perceive themselves and each other in the international system. … Read More»

Entrepreneurs of Small Enterprises in the UK

Liquidity problem is an important strategic issue to run business enterprises. Small enterprises are realising the importance of such problems to reduce losses arises from this. Liquidity problems arise from shortage of working capital that require to maintain daily operations of the enterprise. If this problem persists for long-time, entrepreneurs are bound to stop their … Read More»

Examining Family Business Corporate Governance

This dissertation sets out a study of the family business’s corporate governance, addressing the relationship between the owners and the management. Family businesses constitute a wide spectrum of enterprises, from small family owned and managed companies to a large internationally operating family controlled corporations. There are several definitions illustrates the family owned businesses, however the … Read More»

Exchange Rate and Inflation in Pakistan Economy

Inflation & exchange rate are two main factors of macro-economics. Inflation is an increase in the level of prices of goods & services in an economy by the passage of time. Exchange rate is very important factor in economic which impact imports & exports of country. A country does not always want the exchange rate … Read More»

Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on Bilateral Trade Flows

Chapter 1: Introduction The relationship between exchange rate volatility and trade flows has been extensively reviewed in literature. Exchange rate volatility refers to the extent to which prices of currencies tend to fluctuate over time. Theoretical literature has provided diverging views on the effect on exchange rate volatility on trade flows. Some authors argue that … Read More»

Exploration of the Economics of Poverty

A significant body of the literature has been dedicated to examining wide spreading of poverty and its gradual explosion issues together with pioneering steps in research and practice towards poverty eradication have created an unprecedented outburst of studies about business literature for poverty eradication. The following section is a review of literature about how multinationals attend low-income markets … Read More»

Export Potential Of Thai Canned Tuna To Japan

Chapter I: Introduction Canned sea foods industry is a value-added industry for both domestic and imported raw products before export to foreign countries. It has been one of Thai’s exported agricultural industries which grown in value continuously. Canned tuna industry is the most important canned sea foods in Thailand. It has a value of 84 … Read More»

Progress and Prospects of Indian Engineering Goods Exports

INTRODUCTION The importance of exports to economic development has been well documented in empirical as well as theoretical literature. A number of studies have examined how exports are beneficial for economic development of an economy. A common point among them is that, exports may lead to greater capacity utilization, economies of scale, incentive for technological … Read More»

Analysis of Local Government Finances in Multan District

Abstract Public finance deals with the financial management of public entities. This paper provides an overview of the financial affairs of local government of district Multan and identifies issues faced by the systems to deliver efficiently and effectively. It also highlights areas or improvement and opportunities to fund these activities. The district government heavily relies … Read More»

Analysis of Food Supply Chain Models

1.1 Globalization in Food Industry background Since last decade, Globalization is a trend in the food industry due to growing potential markets in various developing countries and changing consumption pattern of the people. Integration of international food markets and increasing expansion in international markets of the firms is the most significant trends in global economy. … Read More»

Food Processing in Agricultural Regions

position has been brought about mainly as a result of the fact that pay, employment opportunity and economic output tends to be lower than other areas of industry. The logistical problem in terms of transport and flexibility of workforce is also a contributory factor. Consequently, many agricultural regions have seen a significant decline in fortunes … Read More»

Benefits of Sustainable Water Management in Bangladesh

Food security and surface water management has become a critical need in Bangladesh because of growing demand of food and water. With vision of enhancing food production and employment generation, Local Government Engineering Department (LGED) Bangladesh gets involved at local level surface water management in 1962. As an apex public organization, LGED performs overall planning … Read More»

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Inflow In Pakistan

CHAPTER 1 Foreign direct investment refers to the amount of participation that inflows from country a to country b like in many developing countries it comes from developed countries or it can also come in developed country as net property income from abroad. Foreign direct investment can be positive or negative which then results to … Read More»

Relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and Growth

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION This study will give us an opportunity to identify the determinants of FDI that develops economic growth, to understand the importance of foreign direct investment (FDI) in enhancing the economic growth in Malaysia, and also the relationship between (FDI) and the economic growth in Malaysia. In this chapter of study, the main … Read More»

Effect of Foreign Direct Investment on Nigeria’s Development

Chapter One 1.1 Introduction The drying up in the early 1980’s of commercial bank lending to developing economies made most countries eased restriction on foreign direct investment (FDI) and many aggressively offered tax incentives and subsidies to attract foreign capital (Aitken and Harrison, 1999). Private capital flow to emerging market economies reached almost $200 billion in … Read More»

Free Trade and Competition for the EU

The trade relationship between the European Union and China is one that has existed for several years now. However, this relationship is one that has had its share of conflicts over the past 15 years or so, with regard to the volumes traded between the two regions. Since China entered the WTO in December 2001, … Read More»

Analysis of Ghana’s Economic Growth

1.0. Introduction 1.1. Ghana in 1957 Some fifty years ago, Dr Kwame Nkrumah stood before a throng of cheering fellow Ghanaians, proclaiming independence from the British Empire. “At long last, the battle is ended”, he bellowed triumphantly, “Ghana, your beloved country is free forever” (Nkrumah, 2007). Such were the words that signalled the end of … Read More»

Economic Integration in the Globalised World

An Introduction to the Global Economy Abstract With a view to considering the extent to which an increasingly global economy with more effective economic integration has been achieved, it is necessary for this essay to show an appreciation of the relevance of the principles of globalisation in this regard that have served to effect the … Read More»

Governance and Enterprise Restructuring of Macedonia

Abstract: This paper is a case study of the Republic of Macedonia (Southeast Europe), which focuses on examining governance and enterprise restructuring. Governance and enterprise restructuring is already defined indicator in EBRD’s studies and transition reports, measuring the effective corporate governance and corporate control exercised through domestic financial institutions and markets, fostering market-driven restructuring. As … Read More»

Impact of Advertising Campaigns on Consumer Behaviour

Chapter.1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction and Background The hypermarket plays an important role in Asian countries, such as South Korea, China, Thailand, and Taiwan, the numbers of hypermarkets are rising because of the dense population. Nowadays, Taiwan has experienced rapid economic expansion and a notable increase in consuming capacity. With an increasing demand for better products … Read More»

Hypo Group Alpe Adria Analysis

locations in twelve European countries: Austria, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria, Macedonia and the Ukraine. The group has a rich historical background. Roots of Hypo Group Alpe Adria date way back in 1896 when the group was founded. Consequently, it has accumulated more than one hundred years of business experience. In … Read More»

Effects of Age on Economic Growth

People today, live longer and often healthier lives owing to advances in various areas. It is a challenge to maintain and plan longer lives. Societal ageing hampers economic growth and issues such as sustainability of families, the states and communities’ capacity to provide for older people. A quick look at the recent decline in fertility … Read More»

Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on Operating Performance

Chapter-1: Introduction 1.1 Introduction Along with boosting their own profits, businesses create gains for their shareholders and exist to serve customers. According to Ghosh and Das (2003) these aims can be achieved a) by reducing costs since this increases competitiveness and market share and so wins over more customers, b) by capturing wider markets through … Read More»

Impact of the Economic Crisis on Countries in Africa

The aim of this dissertation is to analyze the impact of the global economic crisis in Africa and provide suitable suggestions as a consultant of the African Union The African economy was proceeding towards a splendid reasonable growth towards the beginning of the year 2008 even though many countries in the world were caught between … Read More»

Barriers to Implementing an E-Learning System

General Introduction/Background In today’s world of globalization, knowledge and learning is considered the most vital element for acquiring competitive advantage (Longworth and Davies, 1996). For gaining competitive advantage firms and institutions are becoming more knowledge intensive, therefore they concentrate more on managing and sharing knowledge to gain significant advantage of this knowledge (Hertog and Sluijs, … Read More»

Importance of Infrastructure Investment in the UK

Acknowledgements In 1999, I completed the 1st year of the full-time Quantity Surveying course at Glasgow Caledonian University before moving to America in 2001. After a five-year stay, I returned to Glasgow in September 2006 and re-enrolled in the Part-time Quantity Surveying course. Ten years on from the first experience of the QS course, it … Read More»

What Location Influences Foreign Direct Investment?

Chapter 1 Introduction This chapter offers an introduction to the research, with paragraph 1.2 detailing the problem it focuses on, leading to the research question in paragraph 1.3. Paragraph 1.4 discusses the relevance of the research. The chapter ends with an outline of the thesis. The next paragraphs contain the various purposes and the general … Read More»

Income Inequality and Economic Growth

of commodities, and then income is generated through sales of products. The very same income is used to buy other products which generate income for other producers. The very same income is used to buy a variety of commodities. The producers decide what to produce depending on their individual preferences and the distribution of income, … Read More»

History and Development of Banks in India

INTRODUCTION: The banking industry in India seems to be unaffected from the global financial crises which started from U.S in the last quarter of 2008. Despite the fallout and nationalization of banks across developed economies, banks in India seems to be on the strong fundamental base and seems to be well insulated from the financial … Read More»

Dynamics of Emerging Sports Bar in India: Culture and Brand

TOPIC “To study the dynamics of the emerging sports bar business in India from a cultural and branding perspective” INTRODUCTION Post liberalization the Indian economy has grown exponentially. The fall out of this is the increase in disposable income of the consumers, emergence of credit card culture and the decreasing size of households. The change … Read More»

Inflation Rate and GDP Growth of Pakistan

CHAPTER 1: The topic of this research is relationship between inflation rate and GDP growth of Pakistan. Nowadays in Pakistan inflation rate is high, when inflation crosses logical limits, it has negative effects on GDP growth. It drops the value of money, resulting in uncertainty of the value of profit & loss of borrowers, lenders, … Read More»

Inter Firm Relationships in the Silicon Fen

The attention that ‘clusters’ have received from policy makers and academics has substantially increased in the last 20 years. Since Porter’s seminal work on The Competitive Advantage of Nations (1990) presented ‘clusters’ as one of the determinants of the international competitiveness of nations and regions, many scholars have adopted and further developed his approach. Porter … Read More»

Political and Country Risks in International Business

Introduction: Political and country risks: Financial institutions and business organizations operate its business activities abroad in order to diversify and expand their sources of revenue and profitability. Organizations that make investment in a foreign market either in the form of equity or assets are exposed to risks that may arise either from an act of … Read More»

International Economics: Trade And Tariffs

INTRODUCTION: International economics is becoming a major part of existing societies because of the rapid changes occurring in economic markets. As days are passing by, governments, consumers, business etc have started realizing that this economic change from their own group, society, city or country is not the only region it’s the effect of the dynamic … Read More»

Internationalization of Asian Multinational Enterprises

INTRODUCTION Background Internationalization can be defined as the desire to be a member of the international society by satisfying a certain standard, or strengthening the influence of a nation on other nations. It becomes the process where multinational enterprise (MNE) engaging, it is very important for these companies to penetrate international market if they want … Read More»

Comparison of Economic Growth: Ireland and Luxembourg

Ireland’s Economic Boom 1 Comparison of Ireland’s (1987-2007) Economic Growth to that of Luxembourg (1985-2001). CHAPTER 1 1.1 Abstract Ireland’s economic transformation from a mere third world agricultural economy to a world-class hi-tech economy remains an issue worth analyzing. As compared to the economic growth of its counterparts in the European Union -for instance Luxembourg … Read More»

Parent Firms of Joint Ventures

Are joint-ventures and their parent firms more closely related in terms of skill-relatedness than in terms of value-chain? Abstract The distance between joint-ventures and their parent firms is a fairly new topic of research in the field of diversification. In the process of determining the actual parent firm of a joint-venture out of all alternative … Read More»

Benefits of Leisure on the Individual

Introduction / Summary In previous contributions, there should have been wide discussions to draw the limits of leisure. I would like to get assistance one that you have read those chapters, in order to write some introductory paragraph that lets the reader know if my contribution is particularly related to some other one. In this … Read More»

Impact of Major Sports Events on the Economy

Introduction The use of sports markets to explore questions of economic interest has a long history as the majority of this literature analyses US sports, notably American football, basketball, baseball, and ice hockey, whilst there is also a considerable interest in soccer, the leading world sport (For example, the 1998 European Short Course Swimming, 1999 … Read More»

Impact of Major Sports Events on the Economy

Introduction The use of sports markets to explore questions of economic interest has a long history as the majority of this literature analyses US sports, notably American football, basketball, baseball, and ice hockey, whilst there is also a considerable interest in soccer, the leading world sport (For example, the 1998 European Short Course Swimming, 1999 … Read More»

Relation Between the Oil Prices and the Sales of Automobiles

Abstract The objective of this research is to study and understand the relation between the oil prices and the sales of automobiles. The escalation in the petroleum prices plays a major role in the automobile industry worldwide. When the price of oil increases, it evidently alarms the automobile industry because the auto companies are in … Read More»

Effect of Export Performance on Economy

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION In this chapter, first we introduce the study by highlighting its background followed by a brief description of Malaysia’s economy and external trade based on relevant statistics related to economic growth trends and international trade, respectively. Next, we further proceed to look in detail at the export performance concept. Then, we indicate … Read More»

Analysis on Current Venture Capital Market in China

Introduction The huge consumer market potential and booming economy in China attract enormous foreign direct investments to capitalize this unprecedented opportunity. Foreign venture capital is not exceptional from this trend. They, however, still have to face constant challenges from regulations, market practices and business cultures in China. To be successful in this marketplace totally different … Read More»

Measures of Central Tendency

The one single value that reflects the nature and characteristics of the entire given data is called as central value. Central tendency refers to the middle point of a given distribution. It is other wise called as ‘measures of location’. The nature of this value is such that it always lies between the highest value … Read More»

Measures of Dispersion

Summary The measure of central tendency, as discussed in the previous chapter tells us only about the characteristics of a particular series. They do not describe any thing on the observations or data entirely. In other wards, measures of central tendency do not tell any thing about the variations that exist in the data of … Read More»

Processes of Mergers and Acquisitions

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Mergers and acquisitions (M&A’s) have become the dominant mode of growth for firms seeking competitive advantage in an increasingly complex and global business economy (Adler, 1997). According to (Schuler et al, 2003) a merger happens when two companies agree to join their operations together to form a new company in … Read More»

Asset Returns in African Stock Market Indexes

1.0 INTRODUCTION Financial markets are important in an economy in that they involve lots of monetary funds in the capital markets. These funds enable firms to raise finance in the form of equities and debts as means to finance expansion or expenses. Hence they serve the intermediation process and also provide a means for investors … Read More»

Monetary Policy and Financial Institutions of Kenya

CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION The world is turning into a “demon” to its own people as many are living in deplorable situations that are hardly bearable. The price level have risen sharply in the recent past coupled with dwindling wage levels and declining growth rate, especially, in majority of African countries where poverty has embedded … Read More»

CBN and FDI Outflows to China

Introduction and Research Problem Since its economic opening in 1979, China has become one of the world’s largest recipients of foreign direct investment (FDI). In 2007, inflows to China totalled over US$82 billion, bringing China’s cumulative FDI to almost US$700 billion for the period 1979 to 2007 (CSB 2007). But what has particularly captured both … Read More»

Strategic Relations Between China and Pakistan

STRATEGIC RELATIONS BETWEEN CHINA AND PAKISTAN AND IT’S IMPACT ON INDO – PAK RELATIONS “If your environment is changing, you must change with it. If you don’t, you perish.” – Curtis E. Sahakian CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. China is a modern developing country with good economic and political condition. It is the biggest ancient society … Read More»

Pembangunan Ekonomi Seimbang Dan Komprehensif

YB. DATO’ MUSTAFA MOHAMAD MENTERI DI JABATAN PERDANA MENTERI DR. AMINI AMIR ABDULLAH PENGARAH PUSAT ISLAM UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA Bermaksud: Dan carilah pada apa yang telah dianugerahkan Allah kepada kamu (kebahagiaan) di akhirat dan janganlah kamu melupakan bahagian kamu dari (kenikmatan) duniawi dan berbuat baiklah (kepada orang lain) sebagaimana Allah telah berbuat baik, kepadamu, dan … Read More»


CADANGAN DEVISA, FINANCIAL DEEPENING DAN STABILISASI NILAI TUKAR RIIL RUPIAH AKIBAT GEJOLAK NILAI TUKAR PERDAGANGAN Abstract These papers analyze the influence of the international reserves and the financial deepening on the real exchange rate stabilization due to the terms of trade shock. The analysis covers 6 countries with quarterly data (Indonesia, United States, Japan, Hong … Read More»

Pricing and the UK Supermarket Industry

In this chapter the background of the topic and the discussion about research problems of the thesis are introduced as well as the purpose and delimitations of the study. They will be described and examined in order to enhance the understanding of our intention for the research and its boundaries. 1.1 Background Pricing is an … Read More»

Problems of the Credit Rating Agencies

Introduction On July 18th, 2007, while referring to adjustable rate mortgages (ARM) (also known as subprime mortgages) bonds, an executive of the Fitch’s residential mortgage group said “We continue to be confident that “AAA” ratings reflect the high credit quality of those bonds”. Since then, between 2008 and 2009, 140 US banks declared bankruptcy while … Read More»

Steps in Company Formation

INTRODUCTION A company is a group of persons associated together for the attainment of a common end, social or economic. Or we can say a company is an association of individuals formed for some common purpose. The company incorporated under the section 3 (1)(i) of the Companies Act 1956 or some earlier company Acts. Companies … Read More»

Effects of Public and Private Monopolies on Consumer

Public and private monopolies what are the positive and negative effects on the consumer An economy comprises of a large collection of firms and consumers that operate on the basis of market mechanisms known as supply and demand. These are used by firms to determine the level of production, the output required to meet consumption, … Read More»

Quality of Consumers Goods

In recent years, consumers are becoming increasingly conscious about the quality, safety, suitability and environmental impacts of the goods that they demand. However, in many cases, consumers would not aware of the quality of a goods or products even after consumptions. These products are known as the credence goods. It is difficult to distinguish between two qualities … Read More»

Real Estate Investment Trusts in China

Real Estate Investment Trusts in China: how can we learn form American model to develop our REITs system? Ouyang Chun Abstract The real estate market is a burgeon market and is an essential part in the Chinese economy. During the past decades, the government made all their efforts to boost its development by using foreign … Read More»

Reformation of China’s Pension Scheme

During the time of writing my dissertation, I have has many help from people both intellectually and emotionally. I would like to take this space to thank first of all, my supervisor, Mr. Robert Plumb, for offering me the support and guidance all the way through. I am grateful to my friends in the BSc … Read More»

Methods of Correlation and Regression Analysis

CHAPTER-14: INTRODUCTION TO REGRESSION ANALYSIS CONCLUSION In a data set of bivariate distribution, there present a set of pairs of observations where each pair of the observations is expressed with numerical values of two variables. Telling alternatively, the bivariate distribution is intended in finding or analyzing relationship between two variables under study. In any scientific … Read More»

Attitudes to Risk and Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship, as defined by Stevenson (1983) “… is the pursuit of opportunity beyond the resources you currently control”. Stevenson and Gumpert (1985, pp. 85-94) advise that the preceding definition represents both the individual as well as the society that he or she is embedded in as he or she identifies an opportunity they desire to … Read More»

Social Enterprise Potential for Sustainability in the UK

Social enterprise is an active and sustainable business form of choice which is able to bring economic, communal and environmental benefits to the UK. It operates across all sectors of the economy, serving individuals in the private, public and third sectors. Through out this research will identify the increase levels of understanding of the role … Read More»

UK Social Enterprises for Sustainability

Abstract Social enterprise is a dynamic and sustainable business model of choice which is able to bring social, economic and environmental benefits to the UK. It operates across all sectors of the economy, serving individuals in the private, public and third sectors. Through out this research will identify the increase levels of understanding of the … Read More»

Ineffective & Unworkable Stability & Growth Pact

Abstract The paper presented provides a discussion and evaluation of the functioning of the fiscal discipline instrument; it was designed in the early 1990’s for inclusion in the Maastricht Treaty, refined in 1997 with the creation of the Stability & Growth Pact (hereafter, ‘SGP’), and reformed in 2005. Assuming that we need it for reasons … Read More»

Theories on Multinational Companies

2.1.1. Introduction In the process of studying the existence, growth and business activities of multinational companies, various theoretical approaches have been developed in the past forty years, depending on the scholars` fields of specialization, perspective and objectives. It is particularly important to distinguish economic approaches to the study of multinationals, strategic management approaches, and finally, … Read More»

Supremacy of the US Dollar

ABSTRACT This assignment briefly discusses the supremacy of US Dollar. It includes suggestions and recommendations to its near future position, internationally. The proponents of the assignment are divided into the history of the US Dollar and its role as the dominating currency in the world. Ever since other currencies began to take part actively in … Read More»

Effect of Country Development on Technology

Introduction Technology is becoming increasingly very important to the success of all business firms, and to the national economic growth. The process of globalization is driven by technology development and the ability of corporations to uplift the use of technology effectively and rapidly. The technological gap between developed countries and emerging nations has narrowed but … Read More»

Effects of the Recession on the Housing Market

Introduction This part of the dissertation seeks to understand and investigate the cause of the current global recession and how it has affected the housing market in the UK. Housing Market Trends After the housing markets spectacular collapse in the 1990s, the UK housing market staged a significant revival. According to the HBOS index, the … Read More»

Norwegian International Ship (NIS) Register: Pros and Cons

Introduction The concept of ship registration dates back to the time when vessels started to sail under national flags. Belonging to different countries, the ‘nationality’ of a ship provides not only protection of the owner’s rights, support and other advantages, but also responsibilities and certain limitations. Registration means subjecting the ship to the jurisdiction of … Read More»

Economic Governance for Crisis Prevention

1.0 INTRODUCTION The proposed research attempts to identify the critical components of economic governance in four Asian countries namely Malaysia, South Korea, Thailand and Indonesia. The study by employing in-depth case study analysis seeks to analyze the economic governance practices in these countries and its relationship to their economic growths. The study then attempts to … Read More»

Effects of the Stock Market on Economic Development

Over the last few decades world stock markets are growing enormously and the stock markets particularly in developing countries represent a large share of this boom. Investors are venturing into the world s newest markets and some are seeing handsome returns but are developing countries themselves reaping any benefits from their stock markets? The evidence … Read More»

Analysis of the EU Enlargement Process

The aim of the group is to gain a first class mark. We want this report to represent our ability to work efficiently together in a group. We endeavoured to produce an end product, which is concise and thorough, highlighting the enlargement aspects of the EU. Our objective is therefore to fully research all areas … Read More»

The Factors Determinant Tax Revenue In Malaysia

INTRODUCTION Malaysia is a federation of 13 States and the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Labuan. The Federal Constitution contains special provisions regarding sources of revenue that are assigned to the Federal and the State governments. Those that are assigned to the State governments include revenue fom land, forest, mining, entertainment, water supply, bank … Read More»

FDI Policies of India and China

Chapter – 1: Introduction 1.1. Overview Foreign Direct Investment is a hot topic in most policy circles as it is associated in many instances with significant macroeconomic changes and improvements in the range of goods and services produced in recipient countries. Furthermore growth in recipient countries is often ascribed to these inflows and so competition … Read More»

The Goods Service Tax In Malaysia

IS THE INTRODUCTION OF THE GOODS SERVICE TAX (GST) IN MALAYSIA GOOD OR BAD? Chapter 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION. In the new global economy, more companies are operating cross border, and as such are faced with the need to deal effectively with many different taxes, often in many different countries, each with different rates, ruling and … Read More»

Impact of Firm Level Characteristics

Abstract Organizational performance has attracted scholarly attention in corporate finance literature over the several decades. However, in the context of insurance sector, it has received a little attention. Current study examines the impact of firm level characteristics (size, leverage, tangibility, risk, growth, liquidity and age) on performance of listed life insurance companies of Pakistan over … Read More»

International Effects of Oil Prices

High prices of oil and steady resource depletion have raised international concerns for energy supply security. Thriving exploration is a significant factor and activity for future oil production. The global economy is currently experiencing high level of international business forces acting upon its stableness. International oil prices relation to international crisis is an essential element … Read More»

Relationship between Inflation Rates and Employment

CHAPTER 1 Gross Domestic Product as an indicator of wealth and therefore quality of life has long been criticized (Mederly, P. and et al. 2003). Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the value of total production of goods and services in a country over a specified period, typically a year. The gross domestic product (GDP) or … Read More»

Role and Impact of Micro Finance Institutions

INTRODUCTION The strong economic growth is bound to create employment opportunities and therefore it will reduce unemployment. The evidence provided by the Labor Force Survey 2005 (First two quarters) clearly supports the fact that economic growth has created employment opportunities. Since 2003-04 and until the last half of 2005-06, 5.82 million new jobs have been … Read More»

The Role of Inflation and Change in Consumer Buying Power

1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Our cram will be paying attention at the diverse aspects of inflation in Pakistan from a local and large-scale point of view. Pakistan has undergone a most important economic growth all the way through previous few years. But the core evils of the economy are at rest unsettled; Inflation remains the … Read More»

The Recession: Causes and Effects

Executive Summary Introduction There was a recession in United States in the late 2008 which carried away in the 2009 as well making an impact on the entire world. The inflation rate soared high with all the things expensive around the corner. A person’s earning power and purchasing power, everything reduced and in fact in … Read More»

Effect on Trade Flows of Regional Trade Agreements

Abstract This paper studies the effect on trade flows of RTAs signed between developing economies. It uses a variation of the gravity model of trade to asses five RTAs: Mercosur, The Andean Community, SICA, the EU, Chile-China. Contents Abstract iii List of Figures vi List of Tables vi List of Formulas vi 1. Introduction viii … Read More»

Underpricing in Turkey: a Comparison of the IPO Methods

Abstract This paper addresses the question of what kind of selling and underwriting procedure might be preferred for controlling the amount and volatility of underpricing in the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE). Using 1993-2005 firm and issue data, we compare the three substantially different IPO methods available in the ISE. One is very similar to the … Read More»

Unemployment as an Indicator of Macroeconomic Performance

The rate of unemployment is one of the most important indicators of macroeconomic performance. Unemployment arises due to the distortions in the supply of labor cause by the non-competitive wage differential. During the period from 1945 until at least 1968, unemployment rates in the major European economies were extremely low by today’s standards. For instance … Read More»

Urbanization Trends In American Cities

Abstract America’s largest population dwells in town. Intermediate cities are regarded as places that promise sustainability in urban growth. This paper looks at recent urbanization trends in American cities. Privatization of urban planning is challenged by sustainable urbanization. Governmental harmonization lacks in the housing market along with urban growth thus has put stress on natural … Read More»

Analysis of Vietnam’s Energy Supply and Production

Vietnam’s economy has expanded rapidly in recent years, with its real gross domestic product (GDP) growing 7.7% in 2004 and 8.4% in 2005. Growth is forecast at 8.0% in 2006. Vietnam has had Normal Trade Relations status with the United States since late 2001, with 2002 marking the first time Vietnam shipped more goods to … Read More»

Development of Kindergarten Business

1. Introduction The investigation of the thesis proposal was set up in order to create a business plan with the help of clear and well-thought decisions based on the professional marketing research. The basic idea was open up a kindergarten with the specialty of focusing on the English teaching from the young ages and providing … Read More»

Analysis of Global Economic Growth

World economic growth 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 World Economic Outlook: According to the World Bank, world economic growth accelerated sharply in 2004. In aggregate, the year 2004 has been the healthiest year for developing countries since the last three decades. East Asian countries have come out of the 1997 crisis and are now performing well. The … Read More»

Social Infrastructure and Economic Growth

Abstract This dissertation has had a focus on the relationship and links between social infrastructure and economic growth in the context of Sub-Saharan countries. Predictability in development and growth is oftentimes linked to various endogenous conditions that can ultimately enhance or detract from the overall potential of a modern nation. The object of this research … Read More»

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